For superb performance on the go, the Canon EOS 6D Mark II camera puts full-frame performance into a compact, fully featured DSLR. Its 26.2 Megapixel CMOS sensor and DIGIC 7 Image Processor help deliver amazing results even at expanded ISO settings, making it great for challenging low-light situations as well as landscape, portrait and event photography. The EOS 6D Mark II also features an impressive optical viewfinder with 45 all cross-type AF points*, fast and accurate Dual Pixel CMOS AF and a Vari-angle Touch Screen LCD for Live View operation which helps create unique angles. With the EOS 6D Mark II’s speed to capture action and the versatility to create phenomenal photographs and Full HD 60p videos in numerous environments and lighting situations, the camera offers creative content makers a winning combination of advanced features in a portable package that’s as fun as it is powerful.
The Canon EOS 6D Mark II features a 26.2 Megapixel full-frame CMOS sensor (approx. 35.9mm x 24.0mm) designed to create high-resolution and detailed images. Capable of sensitivities ranging from ISO 100 to ISO 40000 (expandable to L: 50 and H2: 102400), the EOS 6D Mark II’s sensor captures images of 6240 x 4160 pixels with a pixel size of 5.67 µm square for outstanding detail and a superb signal-to-noise ratio, resulting in great images. Combined with the EOS 6D Mark II’s compact and lightweight design, it helps make high-resolution photography easy and accessible.
For next-level AF operation, the Canon EOS 6D Mark II camera has a wide-area, 45-point all cross-type AF system* which allows you to track fast subjects accurately throughout the frame and has low luminance performance to EV -3 which makes it excellent in dim light. Canon’s high-precision AF system, high-quality bright prism and Intelligent Viewfinder II let you see exactly what the lens sees. These features help provide instant information such as camera settings, with a limited chance of glare so you can easily see and quickly change settings on the spot no matter the shooting situation. The EOS 6D Mark II also features 5 types of AF area selection modes useful for a number of different AF situations.
The Canon EOS 6D Mark II camera features Canon’s brilliant Dual Pixel CMOS AF for crisp Live View shooting. With two photodiodes per pixel capable of phase-difference detection autofocus, Dual Pixel CMOS AF delivers fast and accurate AF throughout the image plane. Able to detect shifts in movement at the pixel level, Dual Pixel CMOS AF enables continuous automatic AF and AF tracking that enhances overall camera operation for sharp still images and smooth, accurate focus transitions in movies, even at Full HD 60p.
The DIGIC 7 Image Processor powers the Canon EOS 6D Mark II camera to produce high image quality and fast operation, even in in low light. The camera features a wide range of ISO 100–40000 for still and videos and it can help keep results sharp and detailed in virtually any lighting situation. Powerful all around, the EOS 6D Mark II can produce beautiful images even where light is limited.
The Canon EOS 6D Mark II is the first full-frame Canon EOS DSLR camera to have a Vari-angle Touch Screen 3.0-inch ClearView LCD II monitor for composing and reviewing photos and movies with ease. Its touch sensitive controls make it easy to select and adjust focus, menu and quick control settings with a touch of a finger. Two-finger touch gestures can be used for zooming or changing images. The 1.04 million dot LCD monitor is constructed to help minimize reflections and treated with a smudge-resistant coating for a bright, clear and easily viewable display.
Built-in Wi-Fi®** Connectivity
For a useful and quick workflow in a variety of locations, the Canon EOS 6D Mark II camera’s built-in Wi-Fi®** feature can help streamline camera operations across the board. Using the free Canon Camera Connect app** on a compatible iOS® or Android™ device, the EOS 6D Mark II can easily be set up to shoot remotely from a distance, even in Live View mode, with complete control of settings such as aperture, shutter speed, ISO, focus and shutter release. Image review and transfer are similarly fast and easy without having to take the camera out of its bag. Still images can even be transferred between two wireless-enabled Canon cameras over a Local Area Network (LAN). Images and video can also be uploaded instantly to CANON iMAGE GATEWAY# for easy sharing on social networking sites, and photos can even be printed on a wireless PictBridge-certified printer without the need for a PC.
Built-in NFC*** Capability
Built-in NFC*** (Near Field Communication) technology helps provide the Canon EOS 6D Mark II camera with a virtually seamless connection to compatible Android™ devices***. Simply tap to connect and transfer images and videos. It’s also compatible with the Canon Connect Station CS100 device, which makes it simple for photographers and moviemakers to view and organize all their photos and videos on one connected device.
Built-in Bluetooth®^ Capability
Bluetooth®^ pairing helps you connect the camera to compatible smart devices using the free Canon Camera Connect app. The Bluetooth® capability uses a low-energy connection that can be set to connect automatically upon pairing of the two devices and helps preserve battery life while maintaining a wireless connection. Bluetooth® lets you quickly and easily connect the EOS 6D Mark II camera to the optional Wireless Remote Control BR-E1 for remote shooting.
Built-in GPS^^ Capability
When you’re capturing images while traveling on vacation or if you’re on the job, GPS has become an important and valuable tool. The EOS 6D Mark II camera’s built-in GPS helps content creators both tag their images with critical location data, and also adjust the time and timestamp on the camera automatically. Since it’s compatible with American GPS satellites, Russian GLONASS satellites and Japanese quasi-zenith satellites Michibiki, the GPS information can stay consistent and accurate.
The EOS 6D Mark II camera is designed to keep up with the action. Its remarkable shutter, advanced AF and exposure and image processing systems help ensure virtually instantaneous response and performance at up to 6.5 fps^^^, even at full resolution. Whether searching for candid moments at a wedding or capturing an athlete’s explosive motion, the EOS 6D Mark II doesn’t let file size compromise the speed of capture even when bracketing exposures of a complex lighting situation, helping photographers and moviemakers consistently attain high-quality and sharp images.
The EOS 6D Mark II camera is built for uninterrupted performance, even when conditions get messy. The battery compartment cover, card slot cover, lens mount, terminal covers and buttons are weather-sealed to help keep water and dust out. The EOS 6D Mark II’s high precision aluminum alloy and polycarbonate resin construction ensures a lightweight and durable camera that gives you the confidence to use in various situations.
Now where to buy just wait it is being sold soon on www.thirdidigital.in
Tamron has unveiled a new all-in-one zoom lens called Tamron 18-400mm F/3.5-6.3 Di II VC HLD. The lens is designed for Canon and Nikon DSLR cameras with APS-c sized image sensor.
Weighing in at 705 grams, the 18-400mm F/3.5-6.3 Di II VC HLD is remarkably compact and lightweight for a lens covering such an extremely wide zoom range. The focal length is equivalent to 29-640mm for Canon and 27-600mm for Nikon.
The optical construction of the lens comprises 16 lens elements in 11 groups. The use of specialised glass elements such as LD (Low Dispersion) and aspherical lens elements effectively minimises chromatic aberrations and geometric distortion. The AF drive system uses Tamron’s exclusive HLD (High/Low torque modulated Drive) motor. The power-saving HLD motor produces outstanding driving torque, and adjusts motor rotation from low to high speed to enable accurate and quiet focusing.
Tamron 18-400mm F/3.5-6.3 Di II VC HLD Lens Features
The world’s first ultra-telephoto all-in-one zoom lens to achieve 400mm telephoto
The new Model B028 is the world’s first lens for APS-C DSLR cameras that covers a focal length range of 18-400mm and achieves a zoom ratio of 22.2x. The focal length of 400mm on the telephoto end enables the capturing of ultra-telephoto pictures with the 35mm equivalent of 620mm angle of view. Now, with just this one lens, a photographer can readily enjoy the power of ultra-telephoto to bring distant subjects closer as well as the perspective-flattening effects that only extreme telephoto settings can achieve. This all-in-one zoom lens is ideal for travel and everyday shooting. It allows a photographer to switch from wide-angle to ultra-telephoto without changing lenses, making it faster and easier to capture a much wider range of subjects including travel scenes, wildlife, action sports, landscapes, cityscapes, portraits and food. Among interchangeable lenses for DSLR cameras (As of May 2017; Tamron)
Excellent image quality across the entire zoom range, from wide-angle to ultra-telephoto and macro
The optical construction of the B028 consists of 16 lens elements in 11 groups. The use of specialized glass elements such as LD (Low Dispersion) and aspherical lens elements effectively minimizes wide-ranging aberrations, including chromatic aberrations and distortion, thereby assuring outstanding image quality. Optimum power distribution among the individual lens element groups achieves both the optical performance and the compact size necessary for an ultra-telephoto all-in-one zoom lens that boasts 400mm focal length. Also, it enables tele-macro photography with a maximum magnification ratio of 1:2.9.
Lightweight and compact design exhibits Tamron’s basic philosophy for all-in-one zoom lenses
Despite being an all-in-one zoom lens that achieves 400mm ultra-telephoto, Model B028 is light and compact with a total length of 4.8in. and a weight of 24.9oz.4 A new lens barrel design utilizing three-step extensions was developed to enable the necessary elongation to produce a 22.2x zoom ratio. Compared to the conventional approach, the division into a larger number of cams ensures comfortable operation and stability while zooming. Tamron’s philosophy for all-in-one zoom lenses is to allow each photographer to casually capture everyday photos with a lens of a practical size, and Model B028 fulfills this philosophy.
HLD motor provides high-precision AF and enables compact lens construction
The AF drive system for Model B028 uses Tamron’s exclusive HLD (High/Low torque modulated Drive) motor. The power-saving HLD motor produces outstanding driving torque, and adjusts motor rotation from low to high speed to enable accurate and quiet focusing. The HLD motor takes up less space thanks to its small size and circular arc shape that allows the size of the lens to be reduced.
Equipped with the Vibration Compensation system necessary for ultra-telephotography at 400mm
Despite its compact size, Model B028 is equipped with Tamron’s proprietary VC (Vibration Compensation) system, which effectively curbs camera shake under low light conditions (such as a dimly lit room or at dusk) and while taking ultra-telephoto pictures. This greatly expands opportunities for casual handheld shooting. The jitter-free stability of the viewfinder image allows for easier framing and enables the photographer to compose the subject quickly and comfortably.
Electromagnetic diaphragm system now used also for Nikon-mount lenses
The electromagnetic diaphragm system, which has been a standard feature for Canon-mount lenses, is now employed in Nikon-mount lenses. More precise diaphragm and aperture control is possible because the diaphragm blades are driven and controlled by a motor through electronic pulse signals. Available only with cameras compatible with the electromagnetic diaphragm (D3100, D3200, D3300, D3400, D5000, D5100, D5200, D5300, D5500, D5600, D7000, D7100, D7200, D300S, D500) (As of May, 2017; Tamron)
User-friendly features for everyday comfortable use
With an eye toward active outdoor photography, Model B028 features Moisture-Resistant Construction to ensure worry-free shooting as well as confidence while shooting under adverse weather conditions. Also, the Zoom Lock mechanism prevents undesired movement of the lens barrel under its own weight when the camera is angled downward while walking.
Compatible with TAP-in ConsoleTM, an optional accessory product
The optional TAP-in Console provides a USB connection to a personal computer, enabling the user to easily update the lens’s firmware as well as to customize features, including fine adjustments to the AF and VC.
External design placing importance on functionality and ease of use
While inheriting the design that makes use of many organic curves and the delicately polished form down to fine details that characterize the SP lens series, the new Model B028 comes with a highly sophisticated design that also places a lot of importance on the lens’s functionality and ease of use, featuring an overall form that faithfully encompasses the internal structures within, a slim Luminous Gold brand ring and the switch shape design.
The Tamron 18-400mm F/3.5-6.3 Di II VC HLD will be available from July Onwards.
There are essentially two basic ways of capturing these shots; with or without a polarizing or neutral density (ND) filter. Either method requires a tripod, as these shots involve too much open shutter time to attempt holding by hand. The object is to increase your exposure time for the shot without overexposing the image.
Longer exposure times allow you to capture clouds, water, or other moving objects in a smooth, flowing manner, while maintaining sharpness and clarity on still objects. A neutral density filter essentially allows for this extended amount of exposure time, without altering the hue or color of the image. Adding the filter is equivalent to stopping down one or more f-stops, and allows you to avoid making the photo too hot due to the amount of time the shutter will be open.
If you don’t have a ND or polarizing filter available, you’ll need to attempt these captures in lower light, such as in the early morning or late evening (it could be said that if possible, you shouldn’t be shooting at any other time anyway). Many photographers use long exposures to capture shots at night.
Begin experimenting with very small apertures during the golden hour (the hour before sunset or after sunrise) such as f/22 or higher, and bump the aperture up to f/8 or larger after night falls. You’ll end up with several attempts, since nailing a great exposure is largely trial and error. You’ll also need to play around with exposure times, and this depends on what moving object you are capturing.
Clouds need much longer times to properly capture their trek across the frame of the shot; 5 minutes is a good place to start. Rolling or crashing waves at a beach require much less, sometimes 15 to 30 seconds is enough to create the necessary motion in the image.
Light painting is probably the fastest growing technique seen these days, and for good reason; the creative possibilities are endless, and can make for some stunningly beautiful art when done correctly. At its core, light painting is another long-exposure technique that utilises in-frame or out-of-frame light sources to create patterns within the photo or illuminate an object in specific locations.
It is possible for the artist to actually perform the painting in front of the camera without appearing in the final shot, due to the ratio of time the photographer is painting to the actual exposure duration.
How to do:
Any number of light sources can be used, although generally flashlights are the most common. Light pens, candles, and various fiber optics can be used as well. The sky is the limit, use your imagination! Like with other long-exposure photography methods, a tripod must be used. Set your camera for a long exposure (30 seconds or more), and use a remote shutter release if available (or the timer function available on almost all cameras will work as well).
The actual location you shoot in should be as dark as possible, obviously working at night is best. We want the object you’re drawing or highlighting to stand out as much as possible against the dark background. Since we’re shooting a long exposure, we can set our aperture to a smaller setting; start with f/8 to f/16 and experiment from there. This will ensure crisper shots with a full field of depth.
If you are not painting a stationary object within the frame, you can stand facing the camera, and draw a figure with the light source on. Try to physically stay in frame for as little time as possible, this will help ensure you don’t show up in the final shot. If painting an object, you can highlight various parts with your light source, turning the light off and on as you go to target specific areas.
Although not quite as popular today as it was a few years ago, HDR photography is still a relevant artform. HDR shots are finished through your post-processing workflow, but start with your photography itself. HDR stands for High Dynamic Range, and refers to the range of dark and light levels we see in a photograph.
Modern cameras, even the most expensive models, lack the dynamic range we have in our own eyes. We humans are able to see a much broader range of colors and light levels. This is partially why scenes in photographs never quite appear as they did when we saw them for ourselves.
High dynamic range imaging is a technique that can help extend the range of levels beyond what our camera can normally capture. This is done by taking multiple shots of the same scene, at varying exposure levels, and combining them in our post-processing later. By doing this, we ensure that we’ll see the darker levels and colors as they should appear, as well as the lighter levels without the blown-out colors. Although many software suites (including Adobe Photoshop) offer a “one-shot” HDR tool that does not require multiple exposures, the results are usually not as accurate and dynamic as a true HDR photo.
How to do:
Dynamic range in a photo is measured in EV, or exposure value, and is equivalent to one f stop; each increase of one EV doubles the amount of light captured, while each decrease of EV cuts it in half. Originally, a minimum of three images were shot, one being very underexposed, one properly exposed, and another overexposed, or blown out. However, most modern DSLR’s now have an AEB, or auto-bracketing setting. This allows you to set up a number of shots with a predefined EV range.
After being set, the photographer can press the shutter release once for each exposure, completing the range of shots in one instance. Whichever method you prefer, you’ll need to capture each image with a set EV difference between them for best results. Smaller EV values (such as 1) will result in less dynamic and drastic images than using 2 or 3 EV’s between each exposure.
After the images have been captured, the process will need to be completed using software. Adobe Photoshop does offer an HDR assembly action that layers the exposures together, but I’ve found the results tend to be poor, and pale in comparison to a proper HDR-specific software package, such as HDRSoft Photomatix. Available for Windows and Mac systems, Photomatix has become an extremely popular standard for processing HDR shots.
Panoramic photography is another example of a method that has vastly increased in ease of use over time. What was once a long, tedious process in a darkroom, hunkering over photo paper, making cuts and separations to multiple photos, is now as simple as a click of a button on your camera.
Panoramic photos are simply multiple shots of a single scene that have been stitched together to form a continuous image. Even with a wide-angle lens, we can only capture so much of a particular scene. By taking multiple shots, we can combine those later and create a photo with a much wider field of view than previously possible.
How to do:
There are many cameras nowadays that have a panorama feature; this basically gives you guides and grids on your viewfinder or screen that make it easy to line up your shots. A horizontal photo can be taken by shooting, moving the camera to the left or right (while keeping it level), and taking another shot when the panorama assist shows that you are only minimally overlapping the previous shot. This overlap is necessary to prevent missing a slice of the scene in the final image. The assist usually shows your last shot, and what your current frame looks like next to it; this helps you create a set of accurate images to start with.
Some cameras, especially older DSLR’s, don’t have this feature, and the individual photos will have to be taken manually. This involves alot of guesswork and trial and error. Thankfully, some tools exist to help, specifically panoramic heads, or pano-heads. This is an attachment that sits on top of your tripod head and allows the camera to be rotated around a single axis (instead of the camera itself rotating on a single plane), and eliminates parallax. Parallax is a anomaly that occurs due to differing angles of viewing in a line of sight, and is not something we want in our final photo. Having a panoramic head allows smooth transitions to the next photo, and usually feature stops in regular increments to properly measure the angle of the next shot.
Macro photography isn’t just popular now; it’s been popular for many years. There’s something intriguing about seeing everyday objects in a way that you never get to see, extremely up close and personal. The beautiful thing about shooting macro is the variety; you can shoot almost anything close up and come away with something totally different.
Macro photography is a bit more equipment-centric than most other methods, meaning for the most part you can’t just go out with whatever you have as your default lens and take great close-up shots. The best results come with having the proper equipment, whether it be lenses, tubes, or reversing rings. That’s not to say you have to spend a small fortune to get the shot you want; many methods of macro shooting can be accomplished using inexpensive equipment. There are generally four categories of equipment that will help you capture those itty bitty details you’re looking for.
If you’re serious about macro, the best way to go is by purchasing a dedicated macro lens. This is, of course, the most expensive option. These lenses are available in various focal lengths, generally from 50mm to 200mm. Macro lenses are specifically made for this type of photography, featuring a long barrel that accommodates extremely close focusing.
As a general rule, the longer the focal length of the lens, the more distance between yourself and the subject you’ll have available. To capture the details of a butterfly, for example, a 50mm lens would require you to move in much too close. For close-ups of a flower, however, a 50mm would work perfectly. As with any lens, varying degrees of build quality are available.
Reversing rings do just that; they simply allow you to screw your existing lens on your camera body backwards. A camera lens fitted properly is intended to take what it sees and size it down to be recorded on the camera’s sensor; reversing the lens does the opposite, working much like a microscope.
One major caveat to note here, since you’ll no longer have the electronic pins aligned, you’ll lose any automatic or electronic features such as aperture control or automatic focusing. On the upside, you’ll have a dirt-cheap method of getting extremely close and capturing ridiculous depth of field;
Extension tubes are another inexpensive way of getting up close. These are hollow pieces that increase the space between your camera body and your lens, which allows the lens to focus closer. These tubes usually come in sets of three different lengths, so you can choose which lengths to use or combine them for some fairly extreme results. You’ll probably struggle a bit with the razor-thin depth of field.
Close Up Filters.
Technically, these are filters, not lenses. Just like a neutral density or polarizing filter, these inexpensive pieces screw onto your existing lens. They are cheap, but since they are technically filters, the quality is usually not the best; any screw-on type filter degrades image quality by some degree.
So now enjoy this new techniques in the rainy season.
One of the first qualities of a photo that catches and captures a viewer’s eye is the composition. Great composition is something that immediately separates the amateurs from the pros and enthusiasts. How you place various objects in the photographic frame determines the composition and works tremendously toward creating a feeling greater than what the object would convey in the real world. Composition is one of the most important elements of the craft of photography, and it is a skill that can be taught and honed through extensive exercise and persistent practice.
Fill The Frame / Cropping
If your shot is in danger of losing impact due to a busy background/surroundings, crop in tight around your main point of focus, eliminating the background so all attention falls on your main subject. This works particularly well with portraits when you’re trying to capture something more intimate and focused or are shooting in a busy location where what’s around them would just cause a distraction. Filling the frame could involve you capturing them from the waist up or for more impact, fill the frame with just their face. Patterns are another subject that when capturing, you should fill the frame with, aligning it up carefully to ensure it’s straight.
To raise the quality of your photos you must make sure that the main subject is of heightened interest and is effectively positioned in the frame to draw the viewer’s eye exactly to where you want it, and emphasize that subject. This can be done in a variety of creative, artistic and symbolic ways. Size, color, shape and how the object contrasts with the rest of the elements in the image (foreground, middle ground and background) are ways to isolate and direct attention to the subject.
Balanced Layout including the Subject with other Elements
The layout of your images influences how visually effective or stimulating your photos will be. When composing your photo, seek a balance in the color, the lighting, and object placement within the frame’s constricting rectangle. When we talk about “balance” in a photograph, we mean a composition that has arranged the visual elements in such a way as to be pleasing to the eye. We’ve all seen group photos (of friends and family) in which the subjects are stuck in the center of the frame with no apparent design other than to fit everyone in the frame, and without regard to effectively filling the frame either. This typical shot lacks interesting composition in the layout, and there’s probably way too much empty space above their heads as well. You seek to achieve interesting composition and perspective by being creative with where and how you physically position the camera, such that the composition has a unique perspective, or view of the world. For example, if you put the camera at the level of the floor when your pet or baby approaches the camera, that photo has a much more interesting composition and perspective than if the camera were held at full height while looking down at the pet or baby. Like many art concepts, perspective and composition is either instinctual, or it can be developed through practice and study.
Keep an eye on the edges of your frame to make sure the person/animal you’re photographing hasn’t had any of their body parts chopped off by it. Cutting off your cat’s tail, your dog’s ears or even part of your model’s head, will not only spoil your shot, the unintentional limb chopping can pull attention away from what the viewer should really be looking at.
What is all about Rule of Third
Understand The Rule Of Thirds
The most basic of all photography rules is all about dividing your shot into nine equal sections by a set of vertical and horizontal lines. With the imaginary frame in place, you should place the most important element(s) in your shot on one of the lines or where the lines meet. It’s a technique that works well for landscapes as you can position the horizon on one of the horizontal lines that sit in the lower and upper part of the photograph while you’re vertical subjects (trees etc.) can be placed on one of the two vertical lines.
This is an artistic concept that photographers lifted from painters, which one uses a frame (like a water, the boatman, & Sky ) within the overall frame to further isolate an object/subject. The key to using a frame within a frame is to make sure that the frame is distinct in shape and lines, and is in sharp focus. Your viewer’s attention will immediately be taken to exactly what you want them to see by using this technique.
Keep your depth of Field view
Make The Most Of Lead In Lines / ShapesOur eyes are unconsciously drawn along lines in images so by thinking about how, where and why you place lines in your images will change the way your audience view it. A road, for example, starting at one end of the shot and winding its way to the far end will pull the eye through the scene. You can position various focal points along your line or just have one main area focus at the end of your line that the eye will settle on. Shapes can be used in a similar way, for example imagine a triangle and position three points of focus at the end of each point where the lines of the shape meet. By doing so you create balance in your shot as well as subtly guiding the eye.
A photograph can have a blurry foreground or background, so this special optical property can enhance the composition of your photos by further isolating the main subject from everything else around it. You can blur the background or foreground by having command over the depth of field, which is controlled by the lens’ aperture, focal length and object’s distance from the lens. Mastering this skill is critical for more interesting images. The wider apertures (f/1.4 to f/2.8) effectively reduce DOF, as do longer focal length lenses
Create the effect of The Background Magic
Unsightly objects, overexposed or particularly bright areas and blocks/dots of bright colour will all pull the eye from what it’s meant to be focusing on so take a good look at your background before you take your shot and if possible, find a background that’s not so obtrusive. If you’re working on portraits make sure there’s no unwanted items sticking out of your subject’s head and unless it adds to the shot, throw the background out of focus. To do this, select a wider aperture if working with a DSLR or select the Portrait Mode on a compact camera to tell it you want to work with a wider aperture.
Perspective is how the photographer views the objects in the camera frame via the placement of the camera. For example, the same subject will have different perspectives when photographed at eye level, from above or from ground level. By varying the perspective you change the placement of the horizon line and you influence your audience’s perception of the scene. For example, if you placed the camera on the ground level to take a full-body photo of someone, and angled the camera up to fill the frame with your subject, he or she will appear much more menacing, powerful and larger than if the camera was held at eye-level. Another way to look at differing perspective is to utilize camera positions that are atypical to what the human eye sees. Bird’s eye views or extremely high angles change the dynamics of your composition.
So let us conclude with 1 Mantra , Keep it Simple
The concept of less is more lends itself effectively to just about everything, and photography is no exception. Overly complicated or complex photographic composition has the same problem as compound complicated sentences in writing, which make it difficult for the audience to understand and appreciate the idea that is trying to be conveyed. Simple in this context doesn’t mean simplistic, but rather lacking unnecessary elements that confuse or are redundant. In photography creating uncluttered, but distinct compositions simplify yet enhance the delivery of the idea. The mind’s eye of the viewer can do all the heavy lifting.
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Aperture is one of the three pillars of photography, the other two being ISO and Shutter Speed. Without a doubt, it is the most talked about subject, because aperture either adds a dimension to a photograph by blurring the background, or magically brings everything in focus. In this article, We will try to explain everything known about aperture in very simple language.
Simply put, aperture is a hole within a lens, through which light travels into the camera body. It is easier to understand the concept if you just think about our eyes. Every camera that we know of today is designed like human eyes. The cornea in our eyes is like the front element of a lens – it gathers all external light, then bends it and passes it to the iris. Depending on the amount of light, the iris can either expand or shrink, controlling the size of the pupil, which is a hole that lets the light pass further into the eye. The pupil is essentially what we refer to as aperture in photography. The amount of light that enters the retina (which works just like the camera sensor), is limited to the size of the pupil â€“ the larger the pupil, the more light enters the retina.
So, the easiest way to remember aperture, is by associating it with your pupil. Large pupil size equals large aperture, while small pupil size equals small aperture.
2) Size of Aperture -Large vs Small Aperture
The iris of the lens that controls the size (diameter) of the aperture is called diaphram in optics. The sole purpose of the diaphragm is to block or stop all light, with the exception of the light that goes through the aperture. In photography, aperture is expressed in f-numbers (for example f/5.6). These f-numbers that are known as f stop are a way of describing the size of the aperture, or how open or closed the aperture is. A smaller f-stop means a larger aperture, while a larger f-stop means a smaller aperture. Most people find this awkward, since we are used to having larger numbers represent larger values, but not in this case. For example, f/1.4 is larger than f/2.0 and much larger than f/8.0.
Now take a look at the aperture picture , courtesy Wikipedia
One important thing to remember here, the size of the aperture has a direct impact on the depth of field, which is the area of the image that appears sharp. A large f-number such as f/32, (which means a smaller aperture) will bring all foreground and background objects in focus, while a small f-number such as f/1.4 will isolate the foreground from the background by making the foreground objects sharp and the background blurry.
4) Lens Apertures: Maximum and Minimum
Every lens has a limit on how large or how small the aperture can get. If you take a look at the specifications of your lens, it should say what the maximum (lowest f-number) and minimum apertures (highest f-number) of your lens are. The maximum aperture of the lens is much more important than the minimum, because it shows the speed of the lens. A lens that has an aperture of f/1.2 or f/1.4 as the maximum aperture is considered to be a fast lens, because it can pass through more light than, for example, a lens with a maximum aperture of f/4.0. That’s s why lenses with large apertures are better suited for low light photography.
The minimum aperture is not that important, because almost all modern lenses can provide at least f/16 as the minimum aperture, which is typically more than enough for everyday photography needs.
There are two types of lenses: Fixed (also known as Prime) and Zoom. While zoom lenses give you the flexibility to zoom in and out (most point and shoot cameras have zoom lenses) without having to move closer or away from the subject, fixed or prime lenses only have one focal length. Due to the complexity of optical design for zoom lenses, many of the consumer lenses have variable apertures. What it means, is that when you are fully zoomed out, the aperture is one number, while zooming in will increase the f-number to a higher number. For example, the Nikon 18-200mm lens has a variable maximum aperture of f/3.5-f/5.6. When zoomed fully out at 18mm, the lens has an aperture of f/3.5, while when fully zoomed in at 200mm, the lens has an aperture of f/5.6. The heavy, professional zoom lenses, on the other hand, typically have fixed apertures. For example, the Canon 70-200mm f/2.8 lens has the same maximum aperture of f/2.8 at all focal lengths between 70mm and 200mm.
Why is this important? Because larger maximum aperture means that the lens can pass through more light, and hence, your camera can capture images faster in low-light situations. Having a larger maximum aperture also means better ability to isolate subjects from the background.
let us understand the digital camera modes is essential to control the exposure in photography. As a good Photographer, you should know what each camera mode does and when it should be used, under what circumstances.
1) What are Digital Camera Modes?
Digital Camera Modes allow photographers to control the parameters of an exposure, specifically, Shutter Speed, Aperture and ISO. While certain modes can fully automate the camera exposure, there are other modes that let the photographer manually control some or all parameters of the exposure.
Today, most digital cameras have various types of camera modes that can be used in different situations. While most point and shoot cameras concentrate on automatic modes for simplicity’s sake, more advanced cameras feature modes that allow both automatic and manual exposure control.
2) Types of Camera Modes
Here are the four main types of camera modes that can be found in most digital cameras today:
Shutter Priority (Tv) or (S)
Aperture Priority (Av) or (A)
3) Program Mode
In “Program” mode, the camera automatically chooses the Aperture and the Shutter Speed for you, based on the amount of light that passes through the lens. This is the mode you want to use for “point and shoot” moments, when you just need to quickly snap a picture. The camera will try to balance between aperture and shutter speed, increasing and decreasing the two based on the intensity of light. If you point the camera to a bright area, the aperture will automatically increase to a bigger number, while keeping the shutter speed reasonably fast. Pointing the camera to a darker area will decrease the aperture to a lower number, in order to maintain a reasonably fast shutter speed. If there is not enough light, the lens aperture will stay at the lowest number (maximum aperture), while the shutter speed will keep on decreasing until it reaches proper exposure.
I personally never use this mode, since it does not give me much control over the exposure. There is a way to override the camera-guessed shutter speed and aperture by moving the control dial (on Nikon cameras it is the dial on the back of the camera). If you rotate the control dial towards the left, the camera will decrease the shutter speed and increase the aperture. If you rotate the dial towards the right, the camera will increase the shutter speed and decrease the aperture. Basically, if you needed to get a faster shutter speed for freezing action, you would rotate the dial to the right, and if you needed to get a large depth of field, you would rotate the dial to the left.
In “Shutter Priority” mode, you manually set the camera’s shutter speed and the camera automatically picks the right aperture for you, based on the amount of light that passes through the lens. This mode is intended to be used when motion needs to be frozen or intentionally blurred. If there is too much light, the camera will increase the lens aperture to a higher number, which decreases the amount of light that passes through the lens. If there is not enough light, the camera will decrease the aperture to the lowest number, so that more light passes through the lens. So in Shutter Priority mode, the shutter speed stays the same (what you set it to), while aperture automatically increases and decreases, based on the amount of light. In addition, there is no control over subject isolation, because you are letting the camera control the depth of field.
I try not to use this mode either, because there is a risk of getting an overexposed or underexposed image. Why? Because if the amount of ambient light is not sufficient and I set the shutter speed to a really high number, my exposure will be limited to the aperture/speed of my lens. For example, if the maximum aperture of my lens is f/4.0, the camera will not be able to use a lower aperture than f/4.0 and will still shoot at the fast shutter speed that I manually set. The result will be an underexposed image. At the same time, if I use a very slow shutter speed when there is plenty of light, the image will be overexposed and blown out.
5) Aperture-Priority Mode
In “Aperture Priority” mode, you manually set the lens aperture, while the camera automatically picks the right shutter speed to properly expose the image. You have full control over subject isolation and you can play with the depth of field, because you can increase or decrease the lens aperture and let the camera do the math on measuring the right shutter speed. If there is too much light, the camera will automatically increase the shutter speed, while if you are in a low-light environment, the camera will decrease the shutter speed. There is almost no risk of having an overexposed or an underexposed image, because the shutter speed can go as low as 30 seconds and as fast as 1/4000-1/8000th of a second (depending on the camera), which is more than sufficient for most lighting situations.
This is the mode that I use 95% of the time, because I have full control over the depth of field and I know that the image will be properly exposed under normal circumstances. The metering systems in most modern cameras work very well and I let the camera calculate and control the shutter speed for me.
6) Manual Mode
As the name suggests, “Manual” mode stands for a full manual control of Aperture and Shutter Speed. In this mode, you can manually set both the aperture and the shutter speed to any value you want – the camera lets you fully take over the exposure controls. This mode is generally used in situations, where the camera has a hard time figuring out the correct exposure in extreme lighting situations. For example, if you are photographing a scene with a very bright area, the camera might incorrectly guess the exposure and either overexpose or underexpose the rest of the image. In those cases, you can set your camera to manual mode, then evaluate the amount of light in darker and brighter areas and override the exposure with your own settings. Manual mode is also useful for consistency, if you need to make sure that both shutter speed and aperture stay the same across multiple exposures. For example, to properly stitch a panorama, all shots that you are trying to put together need to have the same shutter speed and aperture. Otherwise, some images will be darker, while others are lighter. Once you set the shutter speed and aperture to the values of your choice in manual mode, your images will all have consistent exposures.
Happy Photography, please share your inputs & thoughts